Two types of Diabetes
Diabetes is defined by hyperglycemia, the condition of too much sugar (glucose) in the blood stream.
Symptoms of diabetes include vision problems, frequent urination, weight loss, and excessive thirst.
The counter hormone of glucose (insulin) is low or not present in the body; autoimmune disease.
The insulin hormone does not have the ability to activate a signal in the cell (insulin resistance), leading to glucose staying in the blood stream. 90% of diabetic patients have this disease (ADA, 2017).
Figure I: Representation of causes of type II diabetes
In type II diabetes, the process of gluconeogenesis is up regulated. Gluconeogenesis is the creation of new glucose in the body and occurs in the mitochondria and cytoplasm of cells, mostly occurring in the liver and the kidneys. The first two steps occur in the mitochondria and are important to the experiment conducted (UCSFa).
Figure II: Gluconeogenesis reaction diagram in the body
METFORMIN (DIMETHYLBIGUANIDE) ANTIDIABETIC INHIBITION OF PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE IN THE GLUCONEOGENESIS PATHWAY